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Objectives

Students should be able to:

  1. Appreciate the evolutionary diversity of animals.
  2. Understand the classification of animals and features used for those classifications.
  3. Understand some of the unique characteristics of animals – cellular characteristics, development, heterotrophism, and sexual reproduction.
  4. Examine the trends in evolution of animal structures – organizational structure, embryological germ layers, symmetry, body plan, body cavity and segmentation.
  5. Appreciate the role of morphology, anatomy, and physiology in adaptation to environmental conditions and local habitats.
  6. Appreciate the roles of animals and humans in ecological systems.

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Introduction

Animals are eukaryotic, i.e., have membrane–bounded specialized cell compartments (organelles) in which various metabolic functions take place. Two other kingdoms that we have previously studied, namely, protists and fungi, as well as plants, share in this common cellular trait with animals. The exceptions to this are members of the kingdom Monera (Archaea and Eubacteria or common bacteria). You may recall that these organisms lack membrane-bounded organelles, and are called prokaryotes.

Animals, including humans lack the ability to synthesize organics materials from simple, inorganic components as plants and some bacteria do. Thus, animals are characterized as heterotrophic, a trait that varies widely amongst, and between groups. Other essential life functions, such as development and growth, reproduction and dispersal show varying complexity and diversity. 

Animals also differ in several other respects. There are no fewer than 12 phyla, which are divided into invertebrates (animals without backbone) and vertebrates (animals with backbone.  Some phylogenetically lower groups, such as the sponges, are organized at the cellular level, without any discernable tissue structure or organ, others, like mammals; reveal high complexity in organ system and functions. Similar gradation from simple to complex is seen in respect to germ layers, body plan, and body coelom or cavity.

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Pre-lab Activities

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Pre-Lab Activity #1 - Life Cycles

Using resources available to you, find representative imagery of the following:

bulletA haploid life cycle
bulletA diploid life cycle
bulletAlternation of generations life cycle

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Pre-Lab Activity #2 - Animal Imagery

Using resources available to you, find representative imagery of the following:
 

bulletGrantia sponge (cross section)
bulletObelia spp.
bulletHydra spp.
bulletPlanaria spp.
bulletAscaris lumbricoides
bulletDirofilaria immitis
bulletEnterobius vermicularis
 

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Pre-Lab Activity #3 - Dissection Guides

Find dissection guides for the following organisms. The guides should be simple in format and have, if possible, labeled diagrams, rather than pictures.
 

bulletClam
bulletEarthworm
bulletCrayfish
bulletGrasshopper
bulletSea star (starfish)
bulletBony fish (Perch)
bulletFrog

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Pre-Lab Activity #4 - Data Collection Sheet

Download and print out the Data Collection Sheet for Animal Diversity

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Pre-lab Questions (html version)        Pre-Lab Questions (Word version)

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The Laboratory Activities and Data Collection

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Lab Activity #1 - Sponge Dissection

Materials:

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Preserved sponge (Specimen A)

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Prepared slide of sponge

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Dissecting Microscope

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Scalpel

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Forceps

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Data Collection Sheet


Procedures:

  1. Transfer specimen A, a preserved sponge, into an empty Petri dish.

  2. Observe its external anatomy under a dissecting microscope.

  3. Use a scalpel to cut the specimen into two. Examine both halves first under the dissecting microscope

  4. Using a compound light microscope observe the prepared slide of the sponge at scanner (4x) and low power (10x) objectives.

  5. Use your text as a guide to help you identify various parts seen. On your Data Collection Sheet put a check mark beside any of the following structures you observed and describe the structure.

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Lab Activity #2 - Cnidarians

Materials:

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Preserved Cnidarians (Coelenterates)

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Data Collection Sheet

Procedures:

  1. Specimen B is a set of preserved Cnidarians (coelenterates). Examine any four animals, and specify its form and habitat. Use your text book to assist you in this process.

  2. Write the information acquired on your Data Collection Sheet.

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Lab Activity #3 - Cnidarians: Hydra and Obelia

Materials:

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Prepared slide of Hydra  (Specimen C)

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Prepared slide of Obelia (Specimen D)

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Compound Light Microscope

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Data Collection Sheet


Procedures:

  1. Examine specimens C and D, a prepared slide of Hydra and Obelia. On the Data Collection Sheet, draw and label the structures seen in the Hydra cross section and the whole mount of Obelia.  Use the imagery your downloaded in the Pre-Lab to assist you.

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Lab Activity #4 - Planaria

Materials:

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Prepared slide of Planaria (Specimen E)

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Compound light microscope

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Data Collection Sheet


Procedures:

  1. Examine a prepared slide of Planaria (Specimen E) on scanning (4x) and low power (10x). (Note - Do NOT use high power (40x)).

  2. Characterize the animal by providing answers to the questions on your Data Collection Sheet.

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Lab Activity #5 - Nematodes

Materials:

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Prepared slides or biomounts of nematode species.

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Ancylostoma canium or A. duodenale (Specimen F)

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Enterobius vermicularis (Specimen G)

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Dirofilaria immitis (Specimen H)
 

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Compound light microscope

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Dissecting microscope

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Data Collection Sheet


Procedures:

  1. Examine the prepared slides of nematodes on scanning (4x) and low power (10x). (Note - Do NOT use high power (40x)), or if the specimens are in biomounts, then use the dissecting microscope.

  2. Characterize the animal by providing answers to the questions on your Data Collection Sheet.

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Lab Activity #6 - External Anatomies

Materials:

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Preserved Specimens:

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Clam (Specimen I)

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Earthworm (Specimen J)

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Grasshopper (Specimen K)

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Crayfish (Specimen L)

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Sea Star (Specimen M)

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Perch (Specimen N)

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Frog (Specimen O)
 

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Tray

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Data Collection Sheet

Procedures:

  1. External Anatomy: Examine specimens I, J, K, L, M, N and O; which are clam, earthworm, grasshopper, crayfish, sea star, perch, and a frog.

  2. On your Data Collection Sheet, record any two external features seen in each specimen, for example, shells in clam, and scales in fish. Your text or other resources can be used in helping you to recognize these external features.

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Lab Activity #7 - Internal Anatomy - Clam

Materials:

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Preserved Specimen:

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Clam (Specimen I)
 

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Tray

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Dissecting kit

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Dissection Guide

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Data Collection Sheet

Procedures:

  1. Use the dissection guide that you found in the Pre-Lab to perform the dissection and find the major internal organs and structures of the specimen.

  2. Record your observations on the Data Collection Sheet.

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Lab Activity #8 - Internal Anatomy - Earthworm

Materials:

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Preserved Specimen:

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Earthworm (Specimen J)
 

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Tray

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Dissecting kit

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Dissection Guide

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Data Collection Sheet

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Dissecting Microscope

Procedures:

  1. Use the dissection guide that you found in the Pre-Lab to perform the dissection. You are to find the major external structures and internal organs and structures of the specimen.

  2. You may examine your dissection under the dissecting microscope.

  3. Examine the external anatomy and make a list of structures seen, including the mouth, roof of mouth (prostomium), a swollen glandular band (clitellum) towards the anterior end, sensory appendages, and setae. Using your Data Collection Sheet, Lab Activity #8, make a list of all external structures observed.

  4. Examine the internal anatomy. Using your Data Collection Sheet, Lab Activity #8, make a list of all internal organs and structures observed.

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Lab Activity #9 - Internal Anatomy - Grasshopper

Materials:

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Preserved Specimen:

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Grasshopper (Specimen K)
 

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Tray

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Dissecting kit

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Dissection Guide

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Data Collection Sheet

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Dissecting Microscope

Procedures:

  1. Use the dissection guide that you found in the Pre-Lab to perform the dissection. You are to find the major external structures and internal organs and structures of the specimen.

  2. You may examine your dissection under the dissecting microscope.

  3. Examine the external anatomy and note the structures found including the mouthparts, appendages (legs, wings, antennae, compound eyes) spiracles, and ovipositor (if female). Using your Data Collection Sheet, Lab Activity #9, make a list of all external structures observed.

  4. Examine the internal anatomy. Using your Data Collection Sheet, Lab Activity #9, make a list of all internal organs and structures observed.

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Lab Activity #10 - Internal Anatomy - Crayfish

Materials:

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Preserved Specimen:

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Crayfish (Specimen L)
 

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Tray

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Dissecting kit

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Dissection Guide

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Data Collection Sheet

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Dissecting Microscope

Procedures:

  1. Use the dissection guide that you found in the Pre-Lab to perform the dissection. You are to find the major external structures and internal organs and structures of the specimen.

  2. You may examine your dissection under the dissecting microscope.

  3. Examine the external anatomy and note the structures found including the mouthparts, appendages (walking legs, chelipeds, antennae, compound stalked eyes, telson, uropods, swimmerets) and gender.

  4. Using your Data Collection Sheet, Lab Activity #10, make a list of all external structures observed.

  5. Examine the internal anatomy. Using your Data Collection Sheet, Lab Activity #10, make a list of all internal organs and structures observed.

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Lab Activity #11 - Internal Anatomy - Sea Star

Materials:

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Preserved Specimen:

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Sea Star (Specimen M)
 

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Tray

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Dissecting kit

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Dissection Guide

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Data Collection Sheet

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Dissecting Microscope

Procedures:

  1. Use the dissection guide that you found in the Pre-Lab to perform the dissection. You are to find the major external structures and internal organs and structures of the specimen.

  2. You may examine your dissection under the dissecting microscope.
  3. Examine the external anatomy and note the structures found including the mouth, madreporite, arms, tube feet, and spines. Using your Data Collection Sheet, Lab Activity #11, make a list of all external structures observed.
  4. Examine the internal anatomy. Using your Data Collection Sheet, Lab Activity #11, make a list of all internal organs and structures observed.

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Lab Activity #12 - Internal Anatomy - Perch

Materials:

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Preserved Specimen:

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Perch (Specimen N)
 

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Tray

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Dissecting kit

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Dissection Guide

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Data Collection Sheet

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Dissecting Microscope

Procedures:

  1. Use the dissection guide that you found in the Pre-Lab to perform the dissection. You are to find the major external structures and internal organs and structures of the specimen.

  2. You may examine your dissection under the dissecting microscope.

  3. Examine the external anatomy and note the structures found including the mouth, operculum, gills, lateral line, caudal fin, dorsal fin (spiny and soft), pelvic fin, anal fin, pectoral fin, anal opening, scales, and protective coloration. Using your Data Collection Sheet, Lab Activity #12, make a list of all external structures observed.

  4. Examine the internal anatomy. Using your Data Collection Sheet, Lab Activity #12, make a list of all internal organs and structures observed.

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Lab Activity #13 - Internal Anatomy - Frog

Materials:

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Preserved Specimen:

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Frog (Specimen O)
 

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Tray

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Dissecting kit

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Dissection Guide

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Data Collection Sheet

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Dissecting Microscope

Procedures:

  1. Use the dissection guide that you found in the Pre-Lab to perform the dissection. You are to find the major external structures and internal organs and structures of the specimen.

  2. You may examine your dissection under the dissecting microscope.

  3. Examine the external anatomy and note the structures found including the mouth, nostrils, tympanic membrane, eyes and eyelids, nictitating membrane, fore and hind legs, and anal opening. Open the mouth, and find the tongue, vomer teeth, maxillary teeth, eustachian tubes, tracheal opening, and gullet.  Using your Data Collection Sheet, Lab Activity #13, make a list of all external structures observed.
  4. Examine the internal anatomy. Using your Data Collection Sheet, Lab Activity #13, make a list of all internal organs and structures observed.

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Post-lab Activity and Data Analysis

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Results and Analysis

  1. Fill in all data requested on the Data Collection Sheets.
     

  2. Answer all Post-Lab Questions.
     

  3. Attach all materials to the Data Collection Sheet or Post-Lab Questions as requested.
     

  4. Return all materials to the area designated by the instructor.
     

  5. Clean up your lab station.

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Note: Print these questions in the Landscape mode.

Post-Lab Questions (html version)    Post-Lab Questions (Word version)

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